Trends that Led to the emergence of Outer Space Laws in UAE
At this current point, UAE has the largest space sector in the region in terms of diversity and the size of the investment. The world is now technologically expanding and UAE with a futuristic view has a lot to do with scientific developments in outer space. The primary goal of the space law is to ensure a rational and responsible approach to the exploration and use of outer space for the benefit and interest of all humankind. The law in UAE that regulates outer space activities including the launch, re-entry, removing or disposing of a space object from orbit is the Federal Law No 12 of 2019.
The development of internationally established space programs, promoting research and innovation in space sciences, inspiring the young talents of the Emirates to start their career, and the creation of stronger international cooperation is considered the main objectives of the UAE Space Agency. The major progress of the UAE economy depends on the business and finance of the country, the oil and gas industry and, tourism. Since tourism is also a factor in the economic growth of the country, right now space tourism would also have a greater impact on the nation’s economy.
Outer space exploration should only be for the benefit of humankind. The technological advancement in outer space has also given rise to some the major issues like Space Debris. Space debris is a waste material that is thrown out from a launch vehicle like rockets or parts of space crafts that are left to roam around in space which can cause a risk of collision with other satellites. Now it is the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and European Space Agency are to set up a start-up to clean all the accumulated junk within the space. Scientists from Switzerland are about to clear the space debris when it is in its safe orbit, and their mission is about to start in 2025. The first mission here is aimed to remove a large piece of rocket cone.
Planetary defense is when the near-earth objects are identified and kept track of from the earth. It is protecting the earth from near-earth objects by preventing their impact on the earth.
The UAE has developed a National Space Policy serving as an extension to the UAE vision 2021. Whereby the policy aims at the following:
To prioritize the views and aims of the government in the space.
Analyzing the priorities of the state about outer space.
Ensuring the sustainability of the space sector by regulating and strengthening it.
Control on the cooperation in outer space internationally.
Principles have been implemented in the National Policy
There are these principles have been implemented in the National Policy
Improving the standard of living of the citizen: by studying and interpreting this policy the knowledge about the universe should be increased which in turn will have an impact on the lives of the citizens. Only by an increase in knowledge and technical skill, there would be growth in every individual. It would be only because of these developments the technological applications get stronger in the case of telecommunication, broadcasting, navigation, weather and monitoring of climate. Not only the newer generation gets more access to cultural innovations.
More space for national interests: the safety, security and stability for the effective management in case of national disaster and crises. Only this can be done if there is an effective discovery of natural resources, planning roads, frequent checking out of climate and managing it to the regular protection of the environment.
Growth support and economic diversification: introducing a more sustainable and innovative sector in outer space can lead you to grow the economic conditions and capabilities to improve the functioning of the state.
Promoting the status of UAE: there should be a collaboration made between the government, private, academics and research development centres in UAE. There has to be a partnership collaboration between outer space thereby to achieve its goals.
Identification of international laws and treaties: there should be an international acceptance of the outer space law that, they can be for the benefit and interest of humankind.
Analyzing the Treaties on outer space
The Outer space Treaty 1967: Outer space is only to be used for peaceful reasons, according to the treaty. It forbids the deployment of weapons of mass devastation in space, on the moon, or on other celestial bodies. Outer space is also exempt from ‘national appropriation,’ according to the treaty. Furthermore, it prohibits the construction of military infrastructure, operations, or weapon testing on planets or moons.
The Rescue Agreement 1968: The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts, and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space elaborates on elements of the Outer Space Treaty, stating that a state that is a party to the agreement shall take all reasonable steps to rescue and assist astronauts in distress and promptly return them to the “launching” state and that states shall, upon request, assist launching states in recovering space objects that return to Earth.
The Space Liability Convention 1972: The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, which builds on parts of the Outer Space Treaty, states that a launching state is liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space objects on the surface of the Earth or to aircraft, as well as for damage caused by its faults in space. The convention also specifies the method for resolving damage claims.
Registration Convention 1975: The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space, which went into effect in 1976, is a framework that helps states classify and identify space objects. The treaty recognized the significance of keeping a registry that governments and international organizations could access. States are obligated to record information about each space object’s orbit with the United Nations.
The Moon Agreement 1979: The Agreement Governing States’ Activities on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, which came into effect in June 1984, expanded on the Outer Space Treaty as it applied to the Moon and other celestial bodies, stating that those bodies should be used exclusively for peaceful purposes. Furthermore, the Moon Agreement of 1979 states that the Moon and its natural resources are the common legacies of humanity and that an international government should be formed to govern their exploitation when it becomes practical. The space and its use have been changing. Due to the high impact of Artificial intelligence and Machine learning, which empower us to solve all the difficult issues faster than traditional computers could ever do. There are robots invented now by NASA to assist the astronaut. Each satellite is now generating numerous amounts of data, where there has to be kept as junk for a longer period so these are all done efficiently with the development of AI, big data and machine learning. Not only national laws international treaties also act as a link between the private sector and the international framework.